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Novità

sentenza tribunale cagliari

Tribunale Cagliari: non e' reato coltivale cannabis per uso personale
 
 La coltivazione di marijuana per uso personale non va considerata reato ma e' equiparabile alla detenzione e pertanto e' un semplice illecito amministrativo.
Lo ha ribadito il giudice monocratico di Cagliari stamane nel processo che vedeva imputato un giovane dell'hinterland del capoluogo a suo tempo arrestato perche' aveva in casa due piantine di canapa indiana. Il giovane, difeso dall'avvocato Giovanni Battista Gallus, e' stato assolto dall'accusa di coltivazione di droga. Il legale dell'imputato si e' rifatto alla giurisprudenza della Cassazione che nel maggio scorso ha distinto la coltivazione estensiva, e quindi per lo smercio, da quella pura e semplice, e dunque per uso personale. Una sentenza analoga era stata emessa, sempre a Cagliari, nel giugno scorso. Inoltre il Tribunale del Riesame di Cagliari nel 2000 aveva emesso un provvedimento dello stesso tenore giuridico.
"Le sentenza del tribunale di Cagliari, del tribunale di Bologna, che arrivano dopo il pronunciamento della Corte di Cassazione, che ha equiparato l'autocoltivazione domestica al consumo personale, fanno finalmente giustizia dopo anni di persecuzione penale contro persone che non hanno mai commesso reati verso terzi ne tantomeno alimentato il narcotraffico". Lo sostiene, in una nota, il responsabile tossicodipendenze del Prc, Francesco Piobbichi.

Psyco boom

Aumentano i consumi di medicine per combattere ansia e depressione, attacchi di panico e disturbi alimentari. Al ritmo dell'8 per cento l'anno. E si abbassa l'età di chi cerca nelle pillole il rimedio contro le difficoltà della vita. Con molti rischi.

Agli italiani piacciono sempre di più. E aumentano i consumi: nel 2006, l'aumento delle prescrizioni di antidepressivi ha superato dell'8 per cento i già alti livelli del 2005, per un totale di 650 milioni di euro.

 

Eppure, almeno in Italia, il marketing stravince sulla cautela. Ed è riuscito, negli ultimi anni, a catturare pazienti sempre più giovani: il depresso-tipo, insomma, non è più l'anziano o la donna in menopausa o la persona di mezza età, comunque qualcuno che fa i conti con le pene del tramonto della vita. No, proprio il contrario: oggi a impasticcarsi è sempre più spesso il giovane che sta impostando la sua attività lavorativa, che è sul punto di realizzare progetti, di sposarsi o fare figli……….

trovato in giro...

Mille
 

Spesso si sente dire che i soldati fanno uso di sostanze psicoattive in battaglia. C'è nessuno che ne sa qualcosa su questo argomento?
Ad esempio, avevo sentito parlare delle 'Pillole Goering' che la Luftwaffe (si scrive così? :p) dava ai propri piloti per aumentare le prestazioni ed eliminare paure ed incertezze. Erano pillole composte da vari tipi di amfetamine. Esistevano realmente?
Oh ad esempio i Berseker vichinghi, usavano l'amanita muscaria in combattimento o sono solo leggende?
Faccio tutte queste domande perchè sull'argomento non ne so nulla, ma sono molto curioso visto che quando si parla di guerra si tende a parlare di altre cose ma non di queste. Se qualcuno ne sa qualcosa su Droga e Guerra (parlo anche di guerre antiche) sarei molto felice se postasse qualche informazione.

CIAO

wittmann
 

Tutto vero!!! e' dalla notte dei tempi che l'uomo utilizza metodi piu' o meno ortodossi per vincere la paura del campo di battaglia,droghe ,alcool,tutto quello che poteva limitare l'effetto del naturale spirito di autoconservazione che alberga in ognuno di noi.Durante la 1Gm una battuta in voga nell'esercito italiano sottolineava come il miglior alleato dell'esercito italiano fosse il fiasco di vino/grappa,in un libro credo 1 anno sul Pasubio si descrive un assalto notturno delle sturmtruppen austriache completamente ubriache.gli inglesi distribuirono anfetamine ai loro uomini cosi come gli americani e i nazi,i russi vodka e NKVD (metodo forse piu' efficace) se ti ritiravi venivi ucciso.In Vietnam erano molto diffusi oppiacei e cannabis fra gli americani,anche oggi le truppe aerotrasporate USa hanno in dotazione una pasticca detta stop&Go a base anfetaminica.

tabaccai

in pratica io ho avuto un' esperienza con il tabacco perchè pensavo che comunque baciare una fumatrice è come leccare un posacenere, e allora lei l'avevo mollata ma poi ho iniziato a fumare anche io e ora si è dinuovo assieme e si fumerà tre pacchetti in due ogni santo giorno. per me il tabacco è la peggio sostanza, anche perchè comunque ho sentito che ci mettono di tutto nelle sigarette fuorchè il tabacco. Io sono vittima dei tabaccai.

multinazionali del tabacco

(da: "le dieci peggiori corporation")

 

BAT: CONTRABBANDIERI DI MORTE

Uno dei metodi più efficaci per ridurre il fumo è quello di aumentare il prezzo delle sigarette.

È per tale motivo che l’Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità e le autorità sanitarie considerano l’istituzione di un’elevata tassazione sulle sigarette come la più importante misura di controllo del tabacco che una nazione possa applicare.

È per questo motivo che le industrie del tabacco odiano le imposte dirette sui loro prodotti...e appare chiaro dall’evidenza pubblicata quest’anno che è questo il motivo per cui l’industria del tabacco ha promosso e gestito il contrabbando di sigarette su larga scala, a livello mondiale.

Sulla base di quanto emerso da documenti aziendali interni, scovati dall’International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ - Consorzio Internazionale dei Giornalisti Investigativi), da un progetto del Center for Public Integrity (Centro per la Pubblica Integrità), e dal lavoro del British Group Action on Smoking and Health (ASH UK - Gruppo d’Azione Britannico su Fumo e Salute), la British American Tobacco (BAT) ha portato avanti per decenni un progetto mondiale di contrabbando, con sforzi massicci concentrati in America Latina e Asia.

La BAT, proprietaria della compagnia statunitense Brown & Williamson, è la seconda multinazionale del tabacco dopo la Philip Morris.

I documenti in questione, fanno parte del dossier di milioni di documenti pubblicati durante il contenzioso tra gli Stati Uniti e le aziende produttrici di tabacco.

Come riassunto nella testimonianza resa da Clive Bates di ASH UK all’Health Select Committee (Comitato Scelto per la Salute) della British House of Commons (è il parlamento del Regno Unito n.d.t.), la BAT ha intrapreso un vasto progetto per promuovere il contrabbando di sigarette nel mondo.

Tra le strategie chiave delle aziende sono state elencate:

• L’adozione di un approccio alla pianificazione degli affari e degli obiettivi di vendita che tratta le varie vie del contrabbando come canali di distribuzione "quasi normali", sotto lo stesso controllo operato per i canali legittimi;

• Lo stabilire deliberatamente relazioni d’affari con gli intermediari che riforniscono i contrabbandieri in via diretta o indiretta, e prendere la direzione di queste "aziende" in modo da ricavare guadagni dai mercati illegali;

• La costruzione di magazzini e l’incarico a personale del settore marketing in prossimità di frontiere con scarsi controlli doganali;

• Il servirsi di piccoli mercati legali o duty-free per giustificare campagne pubblicitarie che hanno come fine ultimo lo stimolo della domanda per le sigarette in vendita su mercati illegali (queste sono note come "operazioni ombrello");

• L’organizzazione di complicati movimenti delle merci attraverso diverse giurisdizioni o molteplici livelli all’interno di un’elaborata catena di distribuzione, al fine di generare difficoltà di tracciamento dei prodotti.

Il contrabbando non è un crimine privo di vittime, sottolinea Bates.

"I prezzi inferiori aumentano la domanda e migliorano la posizione competitiva del marchio, stimolando la domanda generale - con effetti d’urto sull’impatto sanitario, dovuti all’aumento del tabagismo."

Il risultato finale, continua Bates, "è l’aumento del tabagismo con conseguente aumento di malattie, specialmente nei paesi in via di sviluppo, tra i poveri, tra i bambini e tra gli adolescenti."

Il documento della BAT dimostra un alto livello di consapevolezza e coinvolgimento nelle operazioni di contrabbando, in cui ci si riferisce alle sigarette contrabbandate con eufemismi quali DNP (duty not paid - dogana non pagata) e GT (general trade - commercio generico).

Ecco alcuni estratti di questi documenti interni:

• "Souza Cruz mi informa che il presidente delle industrie BAT ha appoggiato l’approccio per il quale il Gruppo Operativo brasiliano aumenti la propria quota di mercato argentino via DNP."

• Dal piano quinquennale BAT per il 1994-1998: "una priorità chiave per BAT è garantire che gli obiettivi e le prestazioni dell’intero sistema del Gruppo ricevano la necessaria priorità grazie all’efficace gestione di tale giro d’affari [DNP]."

• In Cina, l’azienda ha vegliato a "studiare alternative nelle vie di esportazione e nella clientela, atte a favorire la penetrazione di marchi provenenti dal Regno Unito all’interno delle province settentrionali e centrali."

• In Colombia, una nota riportava che "i prodotti DNP dovrebbero essere lanciati due settimane dopo il lancio dei prodotti DP (dogana pagata)."

Al momento di rispondere alle accuse fondate sui propri documenti interni, la BAT è stata aggressivamente evasiva.

"Non abbiamo intenzione di rispondere a domande o reagire a dichiarazioni evidentemente basate su documenti altamente frammentati o fuori contesto, riguardanti argomenti che sono affrontati in modo più adeguato- ed in molti casi lo sono con la nostra piena cooperazione - dai governi e dalle autorità doganali del mondo," è quanto dichiarato dall’azienda in una risposta al Consorzio Internazionale dei Giornalisti Investigativi.

L’azienda ha ammesso di essere a conoscenza del fatto che alcuni dei suoi prodotti "sono manipolati al di fuori dei canali ufficiali," ma ha aggiunto che "non è possibile controllare l’intera catena di distribuzione, sino al cliente finale."

Costretto a comparire di fronte al comitato parlamentare britannico assieme a Clive Bates e a Duncan Campbell (un reporter iscritto all’ICIJ nonché giornalista del Guardian), il presidente della BAT Martin Broughton ha definito il comitato parlamentare una "corte fantoccio".

Ha strappato la copia di una nota interna che si riferiva al contrabbando, ed ha negato di aver letto una lunga serie di articoli scritti sul Guardian in merito all’indagine dell’ ICIJ.

Portogallo. Studio: ecstasy attacca centraline energetiche dei neuroni

Un gruppo di scienziati portoghesi ha scoperto in che modo l'ecstasy, una delle droghe piu' usate dai giovani, riesce a distruggere le cellule del cervello attaccando le centraline energetiche dei neuroni.
Lo studio condotto su animali e pubblicato sull'ultimo numero della rivista Journal of Neuroscience, e' stato condotto da Felix Dias Carvalho, tossicologo dell'universita' di Porto.
Il meccanismo molecolare con il quale si esplica l'azione dell'ecstasy nel cervello sarebbe il seguente: la consumazione dell'MDMA (principio attivo dell'ecstasy) avrebbe l'effetto di accelerare il processo di invecchiamento dei neuroni che potrebbe portate anche a malattie neurogenerative come l'Alzheimer.
L'anello che sembrava mancate di questo meccanismo molecolare e' ora piu' chiaro: il derivato dell'anfetamina agisce direttamente sui mitocondri contenuti nei neuroni ( gli organelli che costituiscono il motore che fornisce l'energia alle cellule); in particolare l'MDMA danneggia i mitocondri attraverso l'azione deleteria verso una sostanza chiamata monoamina ossidasi B. Il risultato e' il malfunzionamento delle centraline energetiche della cellula nervosa fino ad un loro arresto.
La ricerca, secondo gli studiosi, potrebbe aprire la strada verso la messa a punto di sostanze protettive nei confronti dei neuroni danneggiati.

peyote contro alcolismo - scusate è in inglese...xò è interessante

Discover Magazine. Science, Technology and The Future

Peyote is a hallucinogen considered sacred medicine by members of the Native American Church. It was formally legalized for church members in 1994 as an amendment to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Buttons harvested from peyote cacti are purchased from licensed dealers in southern Texas.

Even with several tablespoons of peyote in me, by 3 in the morning I'm fading. For almost six hours I have been sitting in a tepee in the Navajo Nation, the largest Indian reservation in the United States, with 20 Navajo men, women, and children. They belong to the Native American Church, which has 250,000 members nationwide. Everyone except the four children has eaten the ground-up tops, or buttons, of peyote, Lophophora williamsii. U.S. law classifies the squat cactus and its primary active ingredient, mescaline, as Schedule 1 substances, illegal to sell, possess, or ingest. The law exempts members of the Native American Church, who revere peyote as a sacred medicine.
    A barrel-chested man wearing a checked shirt and cowboy boots stands over the cedarwood fire and murmurs a prayer in Diné, the Navajo language. As this roadman, or leader of the service, sprinkles sage on the coals, my eyelids close. I smell the sage and hear it hiss, and I see the roiling geometric patterns, called form constants, generated by compounds such as mescaline. Then the balding white man on my right nudges me and tells me to keep my eyes open. The Navajo might be offended, he whispers, if they think I have fallen asleep. Later, he shakes his head when I lean on an elbow to relieve the ache in my back. Too casual, he says.
    My guide to the etiquette of peyote ceremonies is John Halpern, a 34-year-old psychiatrist from Harvard Medical School. For five years he has been coming here to the Navajo Nation—27,000 square miles of sage-speckled desert stretching from northern Arizona into New Mexico and Utah—to carry out a study of peyote. Funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the study probes members of the Native American Church for deficits in memory and other cognitive functions. Halpern has brought me here to help me understand him and his mission, which is to provoke a reconsideration of the pros and cons of hallucinogenic drugs, commonly referred to as psychedelics.
    Coined in 1956 from the Greek roots for "mind revealing," the term psychedelic refers to a broad range of drugs that include peyote, LSD, and psilocybin, the primary active ingredient in so-called magic mushrooms. Three decades ago the federal government shut down most research on psychedelics, and The Journal of the American Medical Association warned that they can cause permanent "personality deterioration," even in previously healthy users. Halpern says this blanket indictment is "alarmist" but agrees that there are documented dangers associated with the recreational use of the drugs. When ingested recklessly in large doses, psychedelics can generate harrowing short-term experiences, and they can precipitate long-term psychopathology in those predisposed to mental illness. Nonetheless, more than 20 million Americans have tried a psychedelic at least once, and 1.3 million are users of the drugs, by far the most popular of which is now MDMA, or Ecstasy. Halpern undertook his peyote research in part to test persistent fears that those who repeatedly use psychedelics run a high risk of brain damage.
    While recognizing that psychedelics are toxic substances that should not be treated lightly, Halpern thinks some of the drug compounds could have beneficial uses. "There are medicines here," he says, that could prove to be "fundamentally valuable." He hopes the mind-revealing power of psychedelics can be harnessed to help alleviate the pain and suffering caused by two deadly diseases that have long been notoriously resistant to treatment: alcoholism and addiction. More than 12 million Americans abuse alcohol, and another 1 million abuse cocaine or heroin.
    Halpern's conviction that psychedelics might help alcoholics and addicts is based both on research by others and on his personal observations of members of the Native American Church. Although Indians in central and northern Mexico, peyote's natural habitat, have ingested it for spiritual purposes for thousands of years, only in the last century did this practice spread to tribes throughout North America in the form of rituals of the Native American Church.
    All the subjects of Halpern's research are Navajo, who account for roughly 10 percent of the church's membership and hold key leadership positions. Even though tribal leaders have banned alcohol from their reservation, alcoholism is still rampant. For the Navajo and other tribes, rates of alcoholism are estimated to be more than twice the national average. Those in the Native American Church say their medicine helps keep them sober and healthy in body and mind, and Halpern suspects they are right.
    He first took peyote himself five years ago, shortly after presenting his research plan to leaders of the Native American Church. "It would have been supremely insulting to them if I didn't try it. So I tried it." Halpern also hoped that firsthand experience would help him understand how peyote ceremonies might benefit church members. He checked beforehand with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, which told him that it would not object to peyote use by non-Indians for serious scientific, educational, or journalistic purposes. Halpern has participated in five services in all, including the one we both attend, and these experiences have imbued him with respect for the Indians and their faith. When I expressed curiosity about the ceremonies, he said the best way to appreciate them is to participate in one. He warned me that the ceremonies are in no way recreational or fun, and our session in Arizona bears that out.
    Like most Native American Church services, this one has been called for a specific purpose—in this case, to help a wife and husband burdened with medical and financial problems, all too common on the reservation. Except for Halpern and me, everyone is a friend or relative of this couple; some have traveled hundreds of miles to be here. The meeting lasts for 10 hours with only a single 10-minute break, and it unfolds in a rhythm of rituals: smoking tobacco rolled in corn husks; singing hymns in Diné or other Native American languages to the pounding of a deerskin drum; eating peyote and drinking peyote tea passed around in bowls, three times in all.
    There is a spellbinding beauty in the incantations of the roadman, in the sparks spiraling up from the bed of coals toward the tepee's soot-blackened roof, in the stoic expression of the elder who adds cedar logs to the fire and rakes the coals into a half circle. But none of the worshippers seems lost in blissful aesthetic reveries. Far from it. For much of the night, the mood is solemn, even anguished. Two people vomit, including the wife. Both she and her husband sob as they confess their fears and yearnings. So do others as they listen, offer prayers, or divulge their own troubles—usually in Diné, but occasionally in English.
    The power of these ceremonies, Halpern tells me later, is only partly pharmacological. After all, worshippers usually eat just a few tablespoons of peyote, which amounts to less than 100 milligrams of mescaline—enough to induce a stimulant effect but not full-fledged visions. Peyote, Halpern speculates, serves primarily as an amplifier of emotions aroused by the ceremony's religious and communal elements. He cannot prove this conjecture yet, nor can he say how or if the putative benefits of these sessions might be achieved by non-Indians in more conventional psychotherapeutic settings. "A lot more work needs to be done to answer such questions," he says.
    His creeping baldness notwithstanding, Halpern looks younger than his age. He can be brash too. During our weekend in Navajo country—where we visit a substance-abuse clinic and meet a Native American Church leader as well as attend the peyote session—he exults in displaying his knowledge of psychedelic chemistry and his talent for mimicry. A nightclub owner once said his impressions were good enough for a stage act, he boasts. (Actually he is good, especially at obscure sitcom characters like Colonel Klink's irritable commander in Hogan's Heroes: "Kleenk, you EE-dee-ot!")
    Halpern says he does have "an abrasive, sarcastic side." But he also has an earnest, idealistic side that comes to the fore when he talks about his upbringing. Raised in a Jewish home in an affluent New York suburb, he was never particularly religious, but he inherited a passion for healing from his psychiatrist father and psychologist mother. They convinced him that "medicine is the highest profession you can have, because it's such a privilege to work with human beings and to heal them."
    He traces his interest in psychedelics to the early 1990s. Interning at a psychiatric hospital in Brooklyn, New York, he became frustrated that he could not offer better treatments for alcoholic or drug-addicted patients. During a weekend at his parents' home, he vented to a visiting family friend, Chunial Roy, an Indian-born psychiatrist who had settled in western Canada. Roy recalled that in the 1950s, he did a survey of alcoholism among Indians in British Columbia and found low rates among members of the Native American Church. Roy added that psychedelics such as LSD had once been considered promising treatments for addiction and other disorders.
    "I was so fascinated that I did all this research," says Halpern, who had never taken psychedelics and knew little of their history. He learned that LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin, initially viewed as mimickers of the symptoms of mental illness, came to be seen as potential treatments. From 1950 to the mid-1960s, journals published more than 1,000 papers describing the treatment with psychedelics of 40,000 patients afflicted with alcoholism and various other disorders.
    One early advocate of psychedelic therapy was William Wilson, known more familiarly as Bill W., who founded Alcoholics Anonymous in 1935. After observing alcoholics undergoing LSD treatment and taking the drug himself in 1956, Wilson became convinced that it might benefit alcoholics by triggering religious experiences like the one that had helped him stop drinking. The studies that instilled these hopes in Wilson and others were largely anecdotal, lacking controls, or flawed; they were nonetheless suggestive enough, Halpern thought, to merit follow-up investigations.
    After Halpern began his residency training at Harvard Medical School in 1996, he found a mentor: Harrison G. Pope Jr., a professor of psychiatry who had investigated marijuana and other psychotropic drugs. Halpern and Pope have coauthored several papers, notably one that considers whether hallucinogens cause permanent neurocognitive damage, as some early critics claimed. "At present," they wrote, "the literature tentatively suggests that there are few, if any, long-term neuropsychological deficits attributable to hallucinogen use." They contended that most studies linking psychedelics to neurocognitive toxicity examined too few subjects and did not control adequately for pre-existing mental illness or for consumption of other, more toxic substances, such as amphetamines and alcohol.
    It was to help resolve this lingering controversy that Halpern and Pope decided to examine the Native American Church, which offered a large population that consumes a psychedelic substance while avoiding other drugs and alcohol. Halpern and Pope won grants for their project not only from the National Institute on Drug Abuse but also from Harvard Medical School and two private foundations that support research on psychedelics: the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies and the Heffter Research Institute (named after the German chemist who isolated mescaline from peyote and discovered its psychoactive properties in the late 1800s).
    Obtaining the cooperation of Native American Church officials turned out to be more difficult. Many disliked the idea of having their faith scrutinized by a scientist, especially a white one. After Halpern gave his pitch to one church gathering, a tribal elder harangued the crowd in Navajo for 20 minutes. Finally he turned to Halpern and, angrily evoking the specter of Christopher Columbus, exclaimed: "1492!" Another difficult moment came during his first peyote session. The roadman kept insisting that Halpern take more peyote, until finally he vomited. Halpern felt that the roadman's implicit message was, "You want to learn about peyote? I'll teach you about peyote."
    Halpern persisted, coming to meetings bearing gifts of sweet grass and flat cedar, aromatic herbs prized by Indians. "I was trying to show I took the trouble to learn something about their culture." He trolled for volunteers for his research by putting up ads in Laundromats and handing out flyers at a flea market in Gallup, New Mexico. (The $100 promised to those who completed the study helped too.)
    One church leader who persuaded others in the flock to trust Halpern was Victor J. Clyde, vice president of the Native American Church of North America and an elected state judge. During our trip to the Navajo Nation, Halpern and I visited Clyde in Lukachukai, Arizona, where he lives with his wife and three children. Clyde is compact and broad-shouldered, and he speaks with the tough self-assurance of a former prosecutor.

John Halpern, a research psychiatrist at Harvard, says he suspects that psychedelic compounds such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline stimulate "a center in the brain that is involved in spirituality."

    When I asked what the Native American Church stands to gain from Halpern's work, Clyde replied that scientific evidence of peyote's safety should protect church members. Just last year, the Pentagon cited concerns about "flashbacks"—recurrences of a psychedelic's effects long after it has vanished from the body—in barring servicemen in the Native American Church from sensitive nuclear assignments. Didn't Clyde ever worry that Halpern's research might turn up harmful effects? Clyde eyed me momentarily before responding to my question. If peyote was harmful, he said firmly, his people would have noticed by now.
    Clyde's belief that peyote does not harm church members has been corroborated by Halpern's research. He estimates that he spoke to 1,000 Navajo before finding 210 who met his criteria. The subjects fall into three categories: Roughly one-third have taken peyote at least 100 times but have minimal exposure to other drugs or alcohol; one-third are not church members and have consumed little or no alcohol or drugs; and one-third are former alcoholics who have been sober for at least three months.
    Halpern and several research assistants administered a battery of tests—of memory, IQ, reading ability, and other cognitive skills—to the three groups. According to preliminary data that he has presented at conferences, church members show no deficits compared with sober nonmembers and score significantly better than the former alcoholics. Church members also report no flashbacks. With his coauthor Pope, Halpern plans to publish his full results in a peer-reviewed journal this summer, after presenting them to church leaders and Navajo health officials.
    Halpern is already anticipating objections to his research—for example, that its significance applies only to one substance used by one ethnic group. "You could in one sense say mescaline is not the same as all these other compounds," he says. His study nonetheless indicates that psychedelics as a class may not "burn out" the brain. "If we find this group of people that, with these special conditions, aren't having problems, that does have some relevance for the population at large."
    Halpern also realizes that he may be accused of going native, of becoming so close to his subjects that his objectivity has been compromised. To reduce the risk of bias, he and Pope designed the study to be blind; those who scored the tests given to the Navajo did not know to which group each subject belonged. Moreover, Halpern did not participate in peyote ceremonies with any of his research subjects.
    Perhaps the biggest weakness of his and Pope's research, Halpern acknowledges, is that its design precluded testing to see whether peyote reduces the risk of alcoholism. Halpern would like to see that issue addressed in a follow-up study. An ideal partner for a trial could be the Na'nizhoozhi Center, a substance-abuse clinic in Gallup whose clientele is almost entirely Native American. The center, founded a decade ago, offers conventional therapies and self-help programs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, as well as various traditional Indian healing ceremonies. These take place in a yard behind the clinic that is large enough for several of the octagonal log cabins known as hogans, sweat lodges, and a tepee for Native American Church sessions. Although peyote is not given to patients during on-site church sessions, staff members encourage some clients to participate in regular peyote ceremonies once they leave the clinic.
    The clinic's records indicate that those who participate in Indian healing ceremonies fare better than those who have participated in Alcoholics Anonymous. Halpern hopes that someday the clinic, perhaps with his help, will rigorously compare the relapse rates of patients who participate in peyote ceremonies versus other treatments. Ideally, to distinguish the effects of peyote per se from those of the ceremony and of church membership, one group of alcoholics could receive peyote in a non-religious setting; another group could receive a placebo.
    Halpern would never recommend such a protocol, however, because it would violate precepts of the Native American Church. "Peyote taken the wrong way, they believe, is harmful," he explains. Out of respect for the church, Halpern would never advocate testing peyote's effects on non-Indians, either. In this respect, he acknowledges, his affection for church members does influence his role as a researcher.
    But there are many other compounds that can be explored as potential treatments for non-Indians. In a 1996 paper, Halpern reviewed scores of studies of the treatment of substance abuse with psychedelics and found tentative evidence that they reduce addicts' craving during a post-trip "afterglow" lasting a month or two. This effect might be at least partially biochemical; LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin are known to modulate neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, which play a crucial role in the regulation of pleasure.
    One possible candidate for psychedelic therapy would be dimethyltryptamine, or DMT, the only psychedelic known to occur naturally in trace amounts in human blood and brain tissue. DMT is the primary active ingredient of ayahuasca, a tea made from two Amazonian plants. Like peyote, ayahuasca has been used for centuries by Indians and now serves as a legal sacrament for several Brazilian churches. Recent studies of Brazilian ayahuasca drinkers by Charles Grob, a psychiatrist at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, and others suggest that ayahuasca has no adverse neurocognitive effects. An advantage of DMT, Halpern says, is that when injected its effects last less than an hour, and so it could be incorporated into relatively short therapeutic sessions.
    Halpern already has research experience with DMT. In 1994 he spent six weeks helping Rick Strassman, a psychiatrist at the University of New Mexico, inject DMT into volunteers to measure the drug's physiological effects. That study showed that DMT is not necessarily benign. Twenty-five of Strassman's 60 subjects underwent what Strassman defined as "adverse effects," ranging from hallucinations of terrifying "aliens" to, in one case, a dangerous spike in blood pressure. Strassman's concerns about these reactions contributed to his decision to end his study early.
    An even more controversial candidate for clinical testing is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, more commonly known as MDMA or Ecstasy. MDMA is sometimes called an empathogen rather than a psychedelic, because its most striking effects are amplified feelings of empathy and diminished anxiety. Advocates contend that MDMA has therapeutic potential, and several researchers around the world are now administering the drug to patients with post-traumatic stress and other disorders.
    Critics point out that MDMA has rapidly become a drug of abuse, with almost 800,000 Americans believed to be users. The drug has been linked to fatal overdoses and brain damage; just last fall, a paper in Science reported that only a few doses of MDMA caused neuropathy in monkeys. To help resolve questions about MDMA's safety, Halpern and Pope have begun a study of young Midwesterners who claim to take MDMA while shunning other drugs and alcohol.
    All drugs pose certain risks, Halpern says. The question is whether the risks are outweighed by the potential benefits for a population. For example, the benefits of giving MDMA to terminal cancer patients to help them cope with their anxiety might outweigh the risks posed to their health. In the same way, DMT or some other psychedelic might be worth giving to alcoholics and addicts who have failed to respond to other treatments.
    Halpern also hopes to conduct a brain-imaging study to test his hypothesis that psychedelics reduce craving in addicts by affecting their serotonin and dopamine systems. "It sounds reductionistic," he says, "but a picture can be worth a thousand words." An ideal collaborator would be Franz Vollenweider, a psychiatrist at the University of Zurich, who with positron-emission tomography has measured neural changes induced in healthy volunteers by psilocybin and MDMA.
    Some psychedelic effects have already been explained in relatively straightforward neural terms. For example, human brain-imaging tests and experiments on animals have shown that mescaline, LSD, and other psychedelics boost the random discharge of neurons in the visual cortex. This neural excitation is thought to induce form constants, the dynamic patterns I saw when I closed my eyes under the influence of peyote, which are also generated by migraines, epileptic seizures, and other brain disorders. But the effects of hallucinogens will never be reducible to neurochemistry alone, Halpern emphasizes. Decades of research have confirmed the importance of "set and setting"—the prior expectations of users and the context of their experience. The same compound can evoke psychotic paranoia, psychological insight, or blissful communion, depending on whether it is consumed as a party drug in a nightclub, a medicine in a psychiatrist's office, or a sacrament in a tepee. In the same way, psychedelic treatments may produce different outcomes depending on the setting.
    The long-term challenge for researchers, Halpern says, is to determine which settings can exploit the therapeutic potential of hallucinogens while reducing the risk of adverse reactions. In the 1950s and 1960s, psychedelic therapy usually involved a single patient and therapist. In many cases, Halpern believes, psychedelic therapy might work best for couples, families, and friends. "If you take it by yourself, you may have important insights," he says, "but you've lost this other opportunity to learn and grow."

Peyote ceremonies on Navajo Nation lands typically take place in a tepee on a Saturday night and are followed by a communal morning feast.

    People might also respond to settings and rituals designed to evoke religious sentiments. Recently various scientists, notably Harold Koenig at Duke University, have reported finding correlations between religiosity—as reflected by church attendance and other measures—and resistance to depression. Ideally, Halpern says, therapists should be able to choose among many different settings to best serve a patient's needs. One of his favorite proverbs is, "Many paths, one mountain."
    Halpern believes he has benefited from his peyote sessions, albeit in ways difficult to quantify or even describe. Borrowing the term for a compound that boosts the effect of a neurotransmitter, he speculates that peyote serves as a "humility agonist," counteracting his arrogance by instilling awe and reverence in him. He acknowledges, however, that these emotions might be less a function of the peyote than of the ceremony of the Native American Church.
    Reverence is certainly evident in Halpern's bearing throughout the session we attend together. Although plagued by chronic back pain, he sits straight-backed for hour after hour on the $5 cushion he purchased earlier that day at Wal-Mart. He intently watches every ritual, listens to every song. When the roadman asks everyone to pray for the husband and wife who are the meeting's focus, Halpern chimes in loudly.
    Especially early on, the ceremony seems impenetrably foreign, but its meaning becomes more apparent as the night progresses. At one point the roadman, after offering a long prayer in Diné, turns to the husband and wife and says in English: "You must make more time in your lives for those who care about you." The rituals, I realize, are just expressions of gratitude for earth, fire, food, and other primordial elements of existence. After each of us sips from a bowl of water passed around the tepee, the roadman carefully pours some water on the dirt floor. Halpern says in my ear, "Think what water means to these desert people."
    As dawn approaches, the mood throughout the tepee brightens. Everyone smiles as the husband and wife embrace and as their two children, who have been sleeping since midnight, wake up blinking and yawning. The wife, coming back into the tepee after fetching a platter of sweet rolls, jokes and laughs with a friend. As we drink coffee and eat the rolls, she thanks us for having sat through this long night with her and her family. "Thank you for letting us join you," Halpern replies, beaming at her, "and may you and your family enjoy good health."
    Driving out of the Navajo Nation that afternoon, Halpern seems exhilarated, although he has not slept for 36 hours. He howls along with a CD of Native American Church chants and does imitations of Bill Clinton and several Star Trek characters. Outside Shiprock, New Mexico, his expression turns grim as we pass a policeman giving a sobriety test to a wobbly young man. Neither peyote nor any other medicine, Halpern realizes, can cure all those afflicted with alcoholism or addiction. "We don't have magic pills," he says drily. If his research on psychedelics yields therapies that can benefit just 10 or 15 percent of the millions struggling with these disorders, he will be more than satisfied. "I'm trying very slowly," he says, "to put all the pieces in place."

Experiments with People

John Halpern's peyote study is part of a revival of psychedelic research. At least a half dozen prominent researchers are exploring the potential of using hallucinogens, including:

Francisco Moreno, a psychiatrist at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson, administers psilocybin, the primary active ingredient of hallucinogenic mushrooms such as Psilocybe semilanceata, to 10 patients as an experimental treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Pedro Sopelana Rodriguez, a psychiatrist at the Psychiatric Hospital of Madrid in Spain, gives MDMA, or Ecstasy, to 29 women suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder caused by sexual abuse.

Evgeny Krupitsky, a psychiatrist at the St. Petersburg Scientific Research Center of Addictions and Psychopharmacology in Russia, treats alcoholics and heroin addicts with ketamine, an anesthetic that at sub-anesthetic doses produces out-of-body experiences. Krupitsky has reported positive results in his clinic and at the Yale/West Haven VA Medical Center in Connecticut.

Deborah Mash, a neurologist at the University of Miami School of Medicine who also works at a clinic in St. Kitts, West Indies, treats opiate and cocaine addicts with ibogaine, an extract of the West African shrub Tabernanthe iboga.

Charles Grob, a psychiatrist at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center in Torrance, California, plans to offer psilocybin to late-stage cancer patients as an experimental treatment for pain, anxiety, and depression.

israele depenalizza sostanze

Israele. Capo polizia: niente arresto per piccole quantita' di stupefacenti

Desta animate polemiche in Israele l'ordine ufficiale impartito dal capo della polizia Dudy Cohen agli agenti, ovvero mostrare tolleranza d'ora in poi verso i piccoli consumatori di stupefacenti, per dedicare piuttosto le loro energie ad una lotta senza quartiere contro i grandi importatori e trafficanti di droga.

Un portavoce della polizia ha spiegato che si tratta invece del tentativo di utilizzare in modo piu' incisivo le limitate risorse della polizia.
I piccoli consumatori di stupefacenti, e' emerso, richiedono infatti una mole di lavoro notevole, che spesso non si concretizza nemmeno in atti di accusa nei loro confronti. Nel solo 2006 la polizia ha aperto oltre 16 mila pratiche, la piu' banale delle quali ha richiesto comunque una intera giornata lavorativa di un agente.

E' stata stilata cosi' una tabella che sintetizza i limiti di tolleranza della polizia. Le quantita' massime ammesse per sfuggire all'arresto sono 15 grammi di marijuana, 15 grammi di hascisc, 2 grammi di oppio, 3 cartine di Lsd, 3 pastiglie di ecstasy, 0,3 grammi di cocaina e 0,3 grammi di eroina.
Piu' che soddisfatto da questi sviluppi e' Boaz Wechtel, leader della lista politica 'Foglia verde' che per due volte si e' candidato (invano) alla Knesset nell'intento di legalizzare l'uso della 'cannabis'. 'La caccia della polizia ai consumatori di 'cannabis' costa ogni anno ha stimato - 300 milioni di shekel', pari ad oltre 50 milioni di euro. 'Questa cifra puo' essere adesso meglio utilizzata per educare i giovani a stare alla larga dalle droghe davvero pericolose'.

Contenuto Redazionale Fumo: Lo Studio, Sigarette Fatte a Mano Piu' Cancerogene

Roma, 5 set. (Adnkronos Salute) - Sigarette fatte a mano più pericolose di quelle confezionate nel classico pacchetto. Chi se le prepara, tende a fumare meno e ad aspirare meno tabacco. Infatti le bionde fai da te sono spesso un 'compromesso' per chi vuole smettere, ma non ci riesce. Uno studio norvegese lancia ora un capo d'accusa pesante: per i consumatori di queste sigarette il rischio di tumore del polmone è maggiore rispetto agli altri fumatori. La ricerca, presentata alla Conferenza mondiale del carcinoma polmonare in corso a Seul, è stata condotta da un'equipe del Sorlandet Hospital in Novergia, uno dei Paesi dove è ancora forte il consumo di solo tabacco. Totalizza, infatti, il 33% delle vendite di questa categoria di prodotti. Ebbene, secondo i ricercatori, le sigarette rollate a mano sono più cancerogene. Oltre l'80% dei pazienti con tumore del polmone - sulle 333 persone arruolate nello studio - fumava questo tipo di bionde. Il tabacco è meno pressato, ma le sigarette fai da te sono più ricche di nicotina e catrame perché prive di filtro. Secondo uno specialista della statunitense Johns Hopkins University, Jonathan Samet, risultati simili sono già stati evidenziati fra le donne ispaniche negli Usa sudoccidentali: l'incidenza di tumori è elevata fra quelle che fumano sigarette rollate da loro.

Fonte: http://it.notizie.yahoo.com/adnkxml/20070905/thl-fumo-lo-studio-sigarett...

DMT e ayahuasca

TEONANACATL , << la carne degli Dèi >>

 

E’ stato accertato che alcune sostanze endògene a spiccata azione psicomimetica, quali le encefaline e le endorfine, già sperimentate con successo sui ratti nel 1976, sono molto simili ai derivati dell’indolo, precursore di un importante mediatore chimico cerebrale, la serotonina. Questo amminoacido assume particolare importanza nel discorso delle "abductions", in quanto recenti studi ne hanno rilevato un abnorme incremento nel sangue degli individui sottoposti a presunti episodi di "rapimento" ad opera di entità aliene.

Tutte queste sostanze, che come s’è detto vengono prodotte autonomamente dal metabolismo umano, sono in grado di suscitare nell’organismo effetti particolari, a carico del sistema nervoso centrale, equiparabili a quelli prodotti da alcuni principi attivi isolati dai ricercatori, a partire dagli anni ‘50, in alcuni funghi (Psilocybe, Stropharia, Conocybe, Panaeolus) che crescono spontanei nel Messico meridionale.

I principi attivi presenti in questi funghi, chiamati in lingua locale TEONANACATL ( = carne divina ), sono stati chiamati per l’appunto psilocibina e psilocina ed erano utilizzati dalle popolazioni indigene, insieme ad altre sostanze allucinatorie, nei riti magici e divinatori. Descrizioni degli effetti provocati dall’assunzione di quei tipi di funghi si possono rintracciare nelle cronache degli storiografi che seguirono Cortés e Pizarro nelle loro conquiste in America centrale.

Gli studi combinati da parte di etnografi, botanici e farmacologi hanno appurato che l’introduzione per os di 10-15 mg. di psilocibina è sufficiente a provocare in un individuo adulto distorsioni della percezione spaziotemporale e disturbi neurovegetativi (quali nausea, cefalea, midriasi, bradicardia, ipotensione).

Gli effetti durano circa 2-4 ore.

Più recentemente alcuni neurofisiologi hanno dimostrato che una sostanza molto simile alle precedenti, sia chimicamente che farmacologicamente, denominata DMT (dimetiltriptamina), viene prodotta spontaneamente dal cervello umano. Anche se lo scopo per cui viene sintetizzata rimane per il momento oscuro, si è potuto accertare che la DMT è una delle sostanze più "fugaci" che siano mai state osservate nel corpo umano.

Rimane in circolo, infatti, per soli 5 minuti: se ne può rilevare la presenza nel fluido cerebrospinale, ma dopo questo breve lasso di tempo quantità anche considerevoli di essa vengono rapidamente riportate nell’organismo ai livelli di base. Raggiunge la massima concentrazione fra le 3 e le 4 del mattino, periodo che corrisponde di solito alla fase REM (Rapid Eye Movements) del sonno.

Nel maggio del 1997 l’etnobotanico Terence McKenna ha formulato una propria teoria circa la DMT e i suoi effetti sul comportamento umano. Egli sostiene che lo studio di questa sostanza, contenuta anche in alcune essenze vegetali che crescono nelle foreste amazzoniche (Psycotrio viridis, Desmenthacellanoianthus) e già note da tempo ad alcune tribù indigene della Colombia e dell’Ecuador, potrebbe dare un contributo non indifferente alle indagini sulle problematiche legate ai cosiddetti "rapimenti alieni", senza pretendere tuttavia che in questo risieda la spiegazione del fenomeno UFO.

Il Dr.McKenna afferma in buona sostanza che, una volta assunta la DMT, dopo circa 15 secondi si avverte la netta sensazione di "essere andati" d’improvviso in un luogo particolare, completamente diverso da quello in cui si era prima di entrare nello stato alterato di coscienza. Molte tra le persone che si sono volontariamente sottoposte alla sperimentazione della DMT hanno riferito di essersi ritrovate all’interno dei "dischi volanti" e di aver trascorso "tre minuti circa del nostro tempo" in mezzo a stranissime "macchine elfiche", manovrate da "piccole creature" dalla pelle grigia, dagli occhi grandi e dal cranio enorme, per poi essere ridepositate nel proprio appartamento quasi senza recare i segni dell’avventura. Immagini identiche, se ci facciamo caso, a quelle che da sempre riferiscono le popolazioni dedite, per tradizione culturale o necessità ambientali, al consumo di sostanze psicòtrope: dagli aborigeni australiani agli aztechi, dagli indios amazzonici ai maya, ecc.

 

 

 

 

ciao a tutti francy84

ucciso dal proibizionismo

vere info

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